In the United States, all books and other works, with the exception of sound recordings published before 1925, are protected by copyright and in the public domain. The applicable date for sound recordings in the United States is before 1923.  In addition, works published before 1964 whose copyright has not been renewed 28 years after the first year of publication are in the public domain. Hirtle points out that the vast majority of these works (including 93% of the books) have not been renewed after 28 years and are in the public domain.  Books originally published outside the United States by non-Americans are exempt from this renewal requirement if they are still protected by copyright in their country of origin. Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time.      Creative work can be in literary, artistic, educational or musical form. Copyright aims to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself.    Copyright is subject to restrictions based on public interest considerations, such as .
B doctrine of fair dealing in the United States. Some sources criticize certain aspects of the copyright system. This is called a copynorm debate. Especially in the context of downloading content to Internet platforms and digital exchange of original works, the copyright aspects of downloading and streaming, the copyrighted aspects of hyperlinks and framing are discussed. Writer James Michener died in 1997. His works such as Alaska, Texas and The Eagle and the Raven, all created after 1978, are protected by copyright until 2067. The Berne Convention of 1886 introduced for the first time the recognition of copyright between sovereign nations and not only bilaterally. According to the Berne Convention, copyright in creative works does not have to be claimed or declared because it is automatically in force at the time of their creation: an author does not have to “register” or “apply” for copyright in countries that have acceded to the Berne Convention.
 As soon as a work is “fixed”, i.e. written or recorded on a physical medium, its author is automatically entitled to all copyright in the work and in all derivative works, unless the author expressly rejects them or until the expiry of the copyright. The Berne Convention has also resulted in foreign authors being treated on an equal footing with domestic authors in all countries that have acceded to the Convention. The United Kingdom signed the Berne Convention in 1887, but did not implement large parts of it until 100 years later with the passage of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. In particular for educational and scientific research purposes, the Berne Convention provides that developing countries grant compulsory licenses for the translation or reproduction of copyrighted works within the limits prescribed by the Convention. This was a special provision that had been added when the Convention was revised in 1971 because of the high demands of developing countries. The United States did not sign the Berne Convention until 1989.  In many jurisdictions, copyright provides exceptions to these limitations when the work is copied for commentary or other related purposes. U.S. copyright law does not apply to names, titles, short sentences or lists (para. B example, ingredients, recipes, labels or formulas).
 However, there are safeguards for areas that copyright does not cover, such as trademarks and patents. A work is protected by copyright if it is fixed in a tangible medium of expression*. After March 1, 1989, works no longer need a copyright notice (or the word copyright, the name of the author, and the year of publication). © Copyright registration is also no longer necessary. However, it is advisable to attach a copyright notice to the works so that the copyright owner can be easily identified. With any type of property, its owner can decide how to use it, and others can only use it legally if they have permission from the owner, often through a license. However, the use of the property by the owner must respect the legally recognized rights and interests of other members of society. Thus, the owner of a copyrighted work can decide how the work is used and prevent others from using it without permission. National laws generally grant copyright holders exclusive rights allowing third parties to use their works, subject to the legally recognised rights and interests of others.
 Most copyright laws state that authors or other rights holders have the right to authorize or prevent certain actions relating to a work. Rights holders may approve or prohibit the following: Generally, a work must meet minimum standards of originality to qualify for copyright, and copyright expires after a certain period of time (some jurisdictions may allow renewal). .